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LR occurred severely in , , , , and in China and caused serious yield loss Dong, ; Zhou et al. Although LR can be controlled by fungicides overuse may lead to fungicide residues in the grain, or resistance to fungicides followed by a resurgence of the disease under favorable conditions Luo, Therefore, planting resistant cultivars is the most effective, economic and environmentally safe mean of controlling the disease.
There are two kinds of resistance, viz. Race specific resistance is often controlled by a single gene or simple gene combinations and elicits a HR. This kind of resistance is often not durable as it is readily overcome by new pathotypes that lack the corresponding avirulence factors.
In contrast, race non-specific resistance, termed as APR, slow rusting or partial resistance, typically reduces growth and reproduction of the pathogen on adult plants. It is usually controlled by several minor genes, and tends to be more durable compared with race specific resistance. To date, more than LR genes have been documented, and 76 have been cataloged McIntosh et al.
Most of these genes are race specific and can be overcome easily by new pathogen pathotypes. Only four known slow rusting resistance genes, viz. Although minor gene resistance tends to be more durable than major gene resistance, it also might be overcome by slow evolution in the pathogen populations McDonald and Linde, Therefore, it is very important to identify more APR gene in wheat cultivars for controlling wheat rusts in China.